AS Music Technology - Listening & Analysing - Pop & Jazz Genres

 

Overview: On this page you will find an overview of each pop music and jazz genre that is studied in preparation for the 'Listening & Analysing' exam at AS Level. You will also find:
    • Links to the specially compiled album  relating to each genre
    • A link to the more detailed Style Guide to be used in conjunction with the album
    • Selected Sound on Sound articles relating to specific songs on some albums
    • Reading references
About the Pop Music Textbook
    Wherever possible, the specially complied albums contain songs that are detailed in the Pop Music Text Book. Furthermore, the red text will point to the songs that are analysed at the back of the book.  It is essential to your understanding of each genre that you complete the specifies reading for each genre and listen to the related tracks in conjunction with the written material


Quick Links:

AOR
Blues
Country
Dance Music
Electric folk
Funk
Glam rock
Gospel
Grunge
Heavy metal
Hip-Hop
Indie
Jazz
New age
Prog rock
Psychedelic rock
Punk rock
Reggae
Rock 'n' roll
Soul


AOR - back to the top


Quick Summary:  

Album Orientated Rock' in the 60s-70s developed into 'Adult Orientated Rock' in the 90s (also called'Melodic Rock') as a less offensive 'middle aged' version of 70s-80s rock.

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Key Artists:   Bryan Adams, Michael Bolton, Starship, Whitesnake.
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Key Songs: Quaver gif Everything I do (Bryan Adams)
  Quaver gif How am I supposed to live without you (Michael Bolton).
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Key Terms:   'Polished' sound, radio friendly, commercially viable, fat power drums (snare), non-offensive, reaction against grunge.
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Essential Reading: document icon2 The AS Music Technology Guide To Rock
  document icon2 AS Student Guide, pg.25
Further Resources:  
SOS logo

SOS Classic Tracks - recording Bryan Adams' Run To You

 


BLUES - back to the top


Quick Summary:
  Arose out of the fusion of West African and European Influences in early America. Blues as a style began to emerge in South America (Mississippi) after the American Civil War. 'Early Blues' and 'Delta Blues' highly influential in the birth of 'Jazz' and eventually 'Rock 'n' Roll'.
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Key Artists: Delta Blues: Charlie Patton, Robert Johnson
Classic Blues: Bessie Smith
Urban Blues: Muddy Waters, Howlin' Wolf
Rhythm & Blues: Fats Domino ,
British Blues: John Mayall & The Bluesbreakers
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Key Songs: Quaver gif Click here to play the AS Music Technology Guide To Blues album
Delta Blues: High Sheriff Blues (Charlie Patton), Dust My Broom (Robert Johnson)
Classic Blues: Me & My Gin (Bessie Smith)
Urban Blues: Hoochie Coochie Man (Muddy waters), I'm So Excited (John Lee Hooker), Louise (Howlin' Wolf)
Rhythm & Blues: Ain't That A Shame (Fats Domino), Saturday Night Fish Fry (Louis Jordan),
    60s British Blues: Ramblin' On My Mind (John Mayall & The Bluesbreakers)
    70s American Blues: Future Blues, Dust My Broom (Canned Heat)
    American Song Book/Musicals: Blues In The Night (Harold Arlen)
    Blues Influence In Modern Pop: Stop Breaking Down, Ball & Biscuit (The White Stripes)
    Boogie Woogie/Rhythm & Blues: Dr Jazz (Jools Holland)
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Key Terms:
  'Call & Response', improvisation, blues scale, flattened 3rd and 5th, 12-bar blues chord sequence, 'Bottleneck' guitar, shuffle/swing rhythm.
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Essential Reading: document icon2

The AS Music Technology Guide To Blues 

document icon2 Pop Music Text Book Chapter 2, pages 133-135
  document icon2  AS Student Guide pages 25-26
Further Resources:  

BBC Logo

The Singer Not The Song - The Blues Voice (BBC Radio 4 Documentary)
Internet Icon Also, try browsing the following websites:

BBC Music - Blues, Soul Reggae
The History Of Rock 'n' Roll
The Blue Highway

 

 


COUNTRY - back to the top


Quick Summary: A combination of popular musical forms developed in the Southern USA from the early 20th Century. The roots of Country Music are in traditional American folk music ('Celtic Music', 'Blues', 'Gospel'). Sub-genres include: 'Bluegrass', 'Nashville Sound', 'Country Rock' and 'New Country'.
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Key Artists:   Bluegrass: The Lonesome River Band, The Dixiechicks
  Country Rock: Neil Young, Gram Parsons, Emmylou Harris, The Eagles
  New Country: Garth Brooks, Tim McGraw, Shania Twain
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 Key Songs: Quaver gif Click here to listen to the AS Music Technology Guide to Country album
  Bluegrass: Heartless Love (The Lonesome River Band), White Trash Wedding (The Dixiechicks)
Country Rock: The Most Beautiful Girl (Charlie Rich), The New Soft Shoe (Gram Parsons), If Only I Could Win Your Love (Emmylou Harris and Herb Pedersen) 
  New Country: Let's Make Love (Faith Hill/Tim McGraw), UP!, Whose Bed Have  Your Boots Been Under Shania Twain)
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Key Terms:  

Bluegrass: 1940s Kentucky, American 'roots music', uptempo 'barn dance' feel, improvised feel, predominance of acoustic string instruments, 'high lonesome sound'

    Country Rock: 1960s-70s, fusion of country music and rock, electric instruments.
    New Country: Led by Garth Brooks, highly produced sound, commercial and pop orientated country music, mainstream country music.
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Essential Reading: document icon2 The AS Music Technology Guide To Country
document icon2  Pop Music Text Book pages 13-14
  document icon2 AS Student Guide page 26.
Further Resources:  
 

SOS logo

SOS Classic Tracks - recording Charlie Rich's TMBGITW
 SOS logo SOS Classic Tracks - recording Shania Twain's Up
Internet Icon Also, try browsing the following websites:
 

DANCE MUSIC - back to the top


Quick Summary: 'Dance Music' can be used to generalise (many sub-genres of) 'beat' dominated music, starting with 'Philly Soul' and 'Disco' in the 70s through to contemporary 'Jungle' and 'Techno'.Influences from 'Funk' in addition to 'Philly Soul' were obviously important, but the development of 'House' and subsequent dance styles would never have occured without developments in electronic instrument manufacture (drum machines, samplers, computer audio editing, etc.).
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Key Artists:   Disco: Gloria Gaynor, Donna Summer, The Trammps, The Bee Gees
House: New Order, Jesse Saunders, Marshall Jefferson
Acid House: Phuture, S'Express
Techno: 808 State, LFO, Orbital, Leftifield, Joey Beltram
  Hardcore: Shamen, Bizarre Inc, The Prodigy
Trance: Hardfloor, Faithless, Underworld
  Jungle/Drum 'n' Bass: Uk Apache, Shy FX, Goldie, Roni Size, Natural Born Chillers
  Speed Garage: Double 99, Pink, Craig David
R&B (Urban): Eternal
Big Beat: Fatboy Slim, The Chemical Brothers
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Key Songs: Quaver gif Click here to play the AS Music Technology Guide to Dance Music
  Quaver gif  Click here to play the AS Music Technology Dance Music Styles CD1
  Quaver gif Click here to play the AS Music Technology Dance Music Styles CD2
  Quaver gif Click here to play the AS Music Technology Dance Music Styles CD3
  Quaver gif Click here to play the AS Music Technology Dance Music Styles CD4
Disco: Never Can Say Goodbye (Gloria Gaynor), Love To Love You Baby (Donna Summer), Disco Inferno (The Trammps)*
House: Blue Monday (New Order), Move Your Body (Marshall Jefferson)
Acid House: Acid Traxx (Phuture), Theme From S'Express (S'Express)
Techno: Cubik (808 State), LFO (LFO), Chime (Orbital), Ten Four (Joey Beltram)
Hardcore: Move Any Mountain (Shamen), Playing With Knives (Bizarre Inc.), Firestarter (the Prodigy)
Trance: Insomnia (Faithless), Children (Robert Miles), Born Slippy (Underworld), Orange Theme (Cynus X)
Jungle/Drum 'n' Bass: Original Nuttah (Uk Apache & Shy FX), Brown Paper Bag (Roni Size)
Speed Garage: Rip Groove (Double 99), Fill Me In (Craig David)
R&B (Urban): Power Of A Woman (Eternal), No Scrubs (TLC)
Big Beat: Renegade Master (Wildchild - Fatboy Slim Old Skool Remix), Leave Home (Chemical Brothers) **
* For an analysis of 'Disco Inferno' refer to page 146 in the 'Pop Music Text Book'
   ** For an analysis of 'Renegade Master' refer to page 152 in the 'Pop Music Text Book
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Key Terms:
  Disco: 110-136 bpm, 'chicken scratch'/wah-wah guitars, electric keyboards (Clavinet, Rhodes, Wurlitzer), big production sound, 16 beat hi-hat, 4 to the floor, heavy octave basslines.
  House: c.120 bpm, sample orientated, 4 to the floor, off-beat hi-hat, soul influenced vocal samples.
  Acid House:
  Techno: 120-140 bpm, more synthesiser orientated than 'House', similar drum patterns to 'House', little or no chord movement.
  Hardcore: 120-145 bpm, frenetic offshoot of 'Acid House', much use of breakbeats and samples.
  Trance: 120-150 bpm, offshoot of 'Techno', more use of harmony than 'Techno', very synthesiser orientated.
  Jungle/Drum 'n' Bass: c.170 bpm Use of speeded up 'Hip-Hop' breaks, lots of drum loops, heavy bass lines.
  Speed Garage: c.120 bpm, 'House' loops mixed with deep synthesised bass lines derived from 'Drum 'n' Bass'.
  R&B (Urban): Combination of soul and the 'tougher' sounds of 'Hip-Hop', soul influenced vocals, virtuoso vocals, tight syncopated drum programming.
    Big Beat: Heavily sample-orientated, combining hip-hop breaks with rock 'n' roll and house music elements.
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Essential Reading: document icon2 The AS Music Technology Guide to Dance Music
  document icon2 The Overview Of Dance Music Styles
document icon2 Pop Music Text Book pages 51-54, 92-102
  document icon2  AS Student Guide pages 26-27
Further Resources:  
BBC Logo Sampled: How Pop Ate Itself (BBC Radio 2 Documentary)
 SOS logo SOS Classic Tracks - recording The Bee Gee's Stayin' Alive 
 SOS logo SOS Classic Tracks - recording Chic's Le Freak
 SOS logo SOS Classic Tracks - recording Orbital's Chime
  Internet Icon Also, try browsing the following websites: 
 

BBC Music - Dance
EuroDancehits.com



ELECTRIC FOLK - back to the top


Quick Summary:   Followed on from the 'Folk Music' revival of the 60s, fusing together elements of rock music with traditional folk songs, bringing them into the charts. The style became very popular and influential, leading to a new wave of 'singer-songwriters' in the 60s and 70s, and can still be heard influencing many of today's acoustic based outfits.
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Key Artists:   American Folk Rock: The Byrds, Simon & Garfunkel
  British Folk Rock: Fairport Convention, Steeleye Span, The Albion Band
  Celtic Rock: Seven Nations
  Celtic Punk: The Pogues, Floggin Molly, Dropkick Murphys
  Celtic Fusion: Afro Celt Sound System
  Singer-Songwriters: Bob Dylan, Joni Mitchell, James Taylor
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Key Songs: Quaver gif Click here to listen to the AS Music Technology Guide to Electric Folk
American Folk Rock: Turn, Turn, Turn (The Byrds), The Sound Of Silence (Simon & Garfunkel), Mr Tambourine Man (The Byrds)
  British Folk Rock: Reynardine (Fairport Convention), John Barleycorn Must Die (Traffic), All Around My Hat (Steeleye Span), Ragged Heroes, The Primrose (The Albion Band).
Celtic Rock: Amy's Reel, Iain's Jig Melody (Seven Nations)
Celtic Punk: Irish Rover (The Pogues), Salty Dog (Floggin Molly), Walk Away (The Dropkick Murphys)
Celtic Fusion: When You're Falling (Afro Celt Sound System)
Singer-Songwriters: You've Got A Friend (James Taylor)*
   *  For an analysis of 'You've Got A Friend' refer to page 143 in the 'Pop Music Text Book'
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Key Terms:
  Fusion of 'electric' & 'acoustic' elements, string instruments ('fiddle', 'mandolin'), 12-string guitars, wind instruments ('celtic flutes', 'pipes', 'Irish Pipes'), slow ballads to fast 'reels' or 'jigs', 'jigs' often have a shuffle (12/8) feel, re-workings of traditional folk songs, stories about people, places and local tragedies.
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Essential Reading: document icon2 The AS Music Technology Guide to Folk Rock
document icon2 Pop Music Text Book page 49
  document icon2 AS Student Guide page 27

Further Resources:

 
 BBC Logo   The Singer Not The Song - The Folk Voice (BBC Radio 4 Documentary)
Internet Icon Also, try browsing the following websites:
 


FUNK  - back to the top

Quick Summary:   An offshoot of 60s Soul Music that developed in the 70s. Has some crossover with Jazz styles of the 70s, particularly the musicians who played Funk bands. In reality then, a fusion of Soul, Rhythm & Blues and Jazz. One artist who proves this point is (the 'Godfather of Soul') James Brown, who was writing and performing from the 1950s onwards, and played a big part in the development of all three genres.
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Key Artists:   Classic Funk: James Brown
  70s/80s Funk: Earth Wind & Fire, Funkadelic
  Recent Funk: Red Hot Chilli Peppers, Jamiroqui
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Key Songs: Quaver gif Click here to play the AS Music Technology Guide to Funk album
Classic Funk: Cold Sweat, I Got The Feelin, Say It Loud, Give It Up Or Turn It Loose, Mother Popcorn, Get On Up*, Funky Drummer,  (James Brown)
70s/80s Funk: Happy Feeling, In The Stone (Earth Wind & Fire), A Joyous Process, (Funkadelic).
Recent Funk: Hump de Bump (Red Hot Chilli Peppers), Space Cowboy (Jamiroquai)
   *  For an analysis of 'Get On Up' refer to page 145 in the 'Pop Music Text Book'
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Key Terms:
  Very prominent rhythm sections, bass guitar often plays a prominent role not just at the front of the mix but playing melodic riffs, more heavily syncopated than soul shifting emphasis to on or around 3rd beat (unlike 2nd beat in soul), melody less important than soul: music to dance to not sing along to, song structures music simpler too with entire songs made up of just a few repeated riffs, horn sections are much grittier with lots of guitar muting.
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Essential Reading: document icon2 The AS Music Technology Guide to Funk
document icon2 Pop Music Text Book page 51-54, 76, 78-79, 83, 88, 90, 138, 145, 155

Further Resources:

 
 BBC Logo Get Up For James Brown - Part 1 (BBC Radio 2 Documentary)
BBC Logo Get Up For James Brown - Part 2 (BBC Radio 2 Documentary)
Internet Icon Also, try browsing the following website:
 

GLAM ROCK - back to the top


Quick Summary:   Popularised in the 70s, mostly English phenomenon, a reaction against the 'serious' rock of the 60s, more about 'fun' and 'silliness' than profundity, much 'Glam Rock' was disposable (Gary Glitter, Slade), other kinds had a more 'esoteric' nature (David Bowie, Roxy Music).
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Key Artists:   Sweet, T-Rex, Alvin Stardust, Slade, David Bowie, Roxie Music
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Key Songs: Quaver gif Click here to play the AS Music Technology Guide to Rock

 

Teenage Rampage (Sweet), Get It On (T-Rex), My Coo-Ca-Choo (Alvin Stardust), Mama Weer All Crazee Now (Slade), Rebel Rebel (David Bowie), Do The Strand (Roxy Music).
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Key Terms:   Catchy 'pop hooks', 'bouncy' rock 'n' roll style, 'over the top' riffs, distorted guitar style, emphasis on costume style, androgynous use of make-up and glittery outfits, songs about 'teenage revolution', lyrical emphasis on sexuality, decadence and fame.
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Essential Reading: document icon2 The AS Music Technology Guide to Rock
document icon2 Pop Music Text Book pages 50-51
  document icon2 AS Student Guide page 27
Further Resources:  
Internet Icon Try browsing the following websites:
 


GOSPEL - back to the top

Quick Summary:  

Religious artists in Southern  USA, many of them also traveling preachers, started making records in a style fused gospel with barrelhouse, blues and boogie woogie techniques and brought jazz instruments, such as drums and horns, into the church. The influence of Gospel on other musical genres, particularly soul music, is wide reaching. Gospel artists, who had been influenced by pop music trends for years, had a major influence on early rhythm and blues artists. Individual gospel artists, such as Sam Cooke, and secular artists who borrowed heavily from gospel. Many of the most prominent soul artists, such as Aretha Franklin, Marvin Gaye, Wilson Pickett and Al Green, started out singing gospel music in American churches. "Stand By Me", by Ben E. King and Lieber and Stoller was adapted from a well-known gospel song, and Marvin Gaye's "Can I Get A Witness", reworks traditional gospel catchphrases.

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Key Artists:   Mahalia Jackson
    The Clara Ward Singers
    Kirk Franklin
    The Brooklyn
    Tabernacle Choir
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Key Songs: Quaver gif Click here to play the AS Music Technology Guide to Gospel album

 

Pure Gospel: Didn't It Rain (Mahalia Jackson)
    Gospel Influenced Songs: I Can't Stop Loving You (Ray Charles) Think (Aretha Franklin) Like A Prayer (Madonna)
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Key Terms:   Solo singer with the choir working in a call-and-response style, Lead singer improvises his or her responses, demonstrating technical skill,  Influence of blues music.
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Essential Reading: document icon2 The AS Music Technology Guide to Gospel
document icon2 Pop Music Text Book pages 14-15, 30-32
  document icon2 AS Student Guide page 28
Further Resources:  
Internet Icon Try browsing the following websites:
 


GRUNGE - back to the top

Quick Summary:   Alternative rock inspired by hardcore punk, heavy metal, and 70s heavy rock. It became commercially successful in the late 1980s/early 1990s. The popularity of grunge was one of the earliest phenomena that distinguished the popular music of the 1990s from that of the 1980s.
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Key Artists:   Nirvana
  Pearl Jam
  Mudhoney
  Stone Temple Pilots
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Key Songs: Quaver gif Click here to play the AS Music Technology Guide to Grunge album
Smells Like Teen Spirit, Come As You Are   (Nirvana), Daughter  (Pearl Jam), In 'n Out Of Grace, 13th Floor Opening (Mudhoney), Days Of The Week (Stone Temple Pilots)
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Key Terms:
  "Dirty" guitar, strong riffs, and heavy drumming, slower tempos and dissonant harmonies not found in punk. Angst-filled lyrics, often exploring frustration, sadness, fear, and depression. Grunge concerts were known for being straightforward, high-energy performances.
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Essential Reading: document icon2 The AS Music Technology Guide to Grunge
document icon2 Pop Music Text Book page 87-92
  document icon2 AS Student Guide page 28

Further Resources:

 
Internet Icon Also, try browsing the following website:
 


HEAVY METAL - back to the top

Quick Summary:   A development of blues rock, rock and prog rock. Its origins lie in the British blues bands and hard rock bands between 1967 and 1974 who fused blues and rock hybrid creating a heavy, distorted guitar-and-drums-centered sound. Heavy metal had its peak popularity in the 1980s. 'Led Zepplin' was one of the first, most influential early heavy metal bands, formed in 1968 by Jimmy Page (former member of 'The Yardbirds'). 'Black Sabbath' first hit the music scene in 1970.
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Key Artists:  

Classic Heavy Metal: Motorhead, Guns n Roses, Iron Maiden, Black Sabbath

  Speed Metal: Helloween
  Thrash Metal: Megadeth, Anthrax
  Industrial Metal: Ministry
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Key Songs: Quaver gif Click here to play the AS Music Technology Guide to Heavy Metal album

Classic Heavy Metal: Ace of Spades (Motorhead), Out Ta Get Me (Guns N' Roses), Chains of Misery,  (Iron Maiden), Cross of Thorns (Black Sabbath)

    Speed Metal: Walls of Jericho (Helloween)
    Thrash Metal: Peace Sells (Megadeth), Got the Time (Anthrax)
    Industrial Metal: Psalm 69 (Ministry)
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Key Terms:
  Aggressive, driving rhythms and highly amplified distorted guitars, Virtuosic playing techniques especially guitar, dark themes and lyrics, aggressive, uptempo rhythms and classical or symphonic styles. Intricate solos and riffs, Guitarists use sweep-picking, tapping and similar techniques for rapid playing. Extreme in terms of volume, machismo, and theatricality. Singers have many different styles, from mid-range clean vocals, to high-pitched wails, to deep growls. Black and death metal singers tend to use distorted death grunts.
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Essential Reading: document icon2 The AS Music Technology guide to Heavy Metal
document icon2 Pop Music Text Book page 48-50
  document icon2 AS Student Guide page 28

Further Resources:

 
Internet Icon Also, try browsing the following website:
 


HIP-HOP - back to the top

Quick Summary:   Hip hop roots are in Jamaican and West African and African American music. 'Rap' is a style of music and performing that is part of the general 'hip-hop' movement. Rap arose during 1970s in New York Block Parties. Early DJs began isolating the percussion breaks to hit songs, a technique then common in Jamaica and which spread via the substantial Jamaican immigrant community in New York. The role of the MC arose to introduce the DJ and the music. The MC role became more stylized, and developed into rapping. By 1979, hip-hop began to enter the American mainstream. By the beginning of the 2000s, rap was a staple of popular music charts. The culture of 'hip-hop' includes DJ-ing, graffiti art (tagging), breakdancing, MC-ing and rap. Rap itself was born in the Bronx area of new York, and came to be made up of two main components: rapping (MC'ing) and DJing (audio mixing and scratching) and was heavily influenced by the Jamaican 'toasting' tradition.
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Key Artists:  

Old Skool Rap/'Electro' experiments/The 'Golden Age': The Sugarhill Gang, Grandmaster Flash, Bambaataa, Herbie Hancock, Run-DMC, Public Enemy, DJ Jazzy Jeff

  'White' Rap: The Beastie Boys
  Gangsta Rap: Ice-T
  1990s - onwards: A Tribe Called Quest, The Fugees, Missy Elliott, Puff Daddy
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Key Songs: Quaver gif Click here to play the AS Music Technology Guide to Hip-Hop album

Old Skool Rap/'Electro' experiments/The 'Golden Age': Rapper's Delight  (The Sugarhill Gang), Good Times*  (Chic), The Message (Grandmaster Flash), Planet  Rock (Bambaataa), Rock It  (Herbie Hancock), Peter Piper (Run-DMC), Public Enemy No. 1 (Public Enemy), A Touch Of Jazz  (DJ Jazzy Jeff & The Fresh Prince), 

    'White' Rap: Fight For Your Right (The Beastie Boys)
    Rock meets Rap: Walk This Way (Run-DMC & Aerosmith)
    Gangsta Rap: 6 'N the mornin' (Ice-T)
    1990s - onwards: Clap Your Hands (A Tribe Called Quest), Killing Me Softly (The Fugees), Get Ur Freak On (Missy Elliott), I'll Be Missing You** (Puff Daddy) 
    * The bass-line and drums for Chic's 'Good Times' was sampled by the Sugarhill Gang for their 'Rapper's Delight'.
** Sting's 'Every Breath You take' was the basis of Puff Daddy's hit 'I'll Be Missing You'
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Key Terms:
  An intensely rhythmic lyrical form, much use of techniques like alliteration, and rhyme, Emphasis on rhythm, beat often created using a sampled of the percussion breaks of other songs, often funk, rock, or soul, strong influence from soul music. Other sounds are often sampled, synthesized, or performed. 'Scratching' an important part of rap and 'hip-hop' culture, where the stylus is moved rhythmically backwards and forwards, creating an important rhythmic effect and 'retriggering' of words and musical phrases. Invention of the drum machine allowed rap musicians to use more of their own original music. The introduction of the digital sampler (in the 80s) changed the way rap was produced.
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Essential Reading: document icon2 The AS Music Technology Guide to Hip Hop
document icon2 Pop Music Text Book page 75-77
  document icon2 AS Student Guide page 30

Further Resources:

 
Internet Icon Also, try browsing the following website:
 


INDIE - back to the top

Quick Summary:   Not strictly a genre of music but often used as an umbrella term covering a range of artists and styles, connected some allegiance to the values of underground culture. The 'punk philosophy' of 'have a go' and 'don't care what anyone thinks' led to the formation of the first 'indie' bands and record labels.Genres often associated with indie rock include lo-fi, post-rock, shoegazer, garage punk, emo. During the 1980s, indie was synonymous in Great Britain with jangly guitar pop of the C-86 movement. During the 1990s indie music became established as musicians and fans began seeking alternatives to the mainstream music.
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Key Artists:  

The birth of 'indie': Happy Mondays, Joy Division, The Smiths

  "Madchester": Happy Mondays, The Stone Roses, Primal Scream, My Bloody Valentine
  Britpop: Pulp, Blur, Oasis
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Key Songs: Quaver gif Click here to play the AS Music Technology Guide to Indie Music album

The Birth of Indie: Wrote For Luck (Happy Mondays), She's Lost Control (Joy Division), Hand In Glove (The Smiths)

    "Madchester": Step On (Happy Mondays), I Am The Resurrection (The Stone Roses), Loaded, Movin' On Up (Primal Scream), Soon My (Bloody Valentine)
    Britpop: Common People (Pulp), Parklife (Blur), Girls & Boys (Blur)
   
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Key Terms:
  Aggressive, driving rhythms and highly amplified distorted guitars, Virtuosic playing techniques especially guitar, dark themes and lyrics, aggressive, uptempo rhythms and classical or symphonic styles. Intricate solos and riffs, Guitarists use sweep-picking, tapping and similar techniques for rapid playing. Extreme in terms of volume, machismo, and theatricality. Singers have many different styles, from mid-range clean vocals, to high-pitched wails, to deep growls. Black and death metal singers tend to use distorted death grunts.
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Essential Reading: document icon2 The AS Music Technology Guide to Indie Music
document icon2 Pop Music Text Book page 89-94
  document icon2 AS Student Guide page 28

Further Resources:

 
Internet Icon Also, try browsing the following website:
 


JAZZ - back to the top

Quick Summary:   There are many sub-genres of Jazz. Jazz music (in the form of New Orleans, Dixieland Jazz) first appeared at the beginning of the 20th century. Jazz styles have continually developed, and have had a considerable impact on many strands of pop music: Rhythm & Blues, Soul, Funk, Prog Rock, New Age.
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DIXIELAND/TRAD JAZZ:   Origins
 

Developed in New Orleans, Louisiana in the 1920s, and spread to Chicago, Illinois and New York City. Often considered the first true type of jazz, and was the first music referred to by the term jazz. The style combined earlier brass band marches, ragtime (e'g' 'The Entertainer' is a ragtime piece of music) and blues styles.

    Musical Characteristics
    Rhythm section with a combination of drum kit, upright bass, piano, and banjo or guitar. Lead instruments are usually restricted to the trombone, trumpet, and clarinet, with the simultaneous playing of the three lead instruments. The tempo  is usually fast and the rhythms are swung.
    Key Artists/Songs
    When The Saints Go Marching In (The Kings of Dixieland), Muskat Ramble (Mick Mulligan's Magnolia Jazz Band).
     ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
BIG BAND JAZZ/SWING:   Origins
    Big-band style developed through the bands of the Swing Era, popular through the 1930s and 1940s. Later bandleaders played different styles of jazz with their bands, e.g. the Gil Evans Orchestra pioneered the 'cool' style, and the Jaco Pastorius Big Band played fusion. Modern big bands can be found playing all styles of jazz. As well as playing instrumental music, big-bands were used to accompany popular singers of the time. Think of Frank Sinatra, and more recently Robbie Williams or Jamie Cullum. When big bands are used for accompanying singers like this, they usually do not improvise, as the music is all written out, so technically it is not jazz. 
    Musical Characteristics
   

The band is divided up into a number of sections, by instrument. Conventional bands since the 1930s have had: a rhythm section, a trumpet section, a trombone section, and a saxophone section. The musical style of this period, both in pop music and jazz, is known as swing. It emphasizes four equally weighted beats in the bar, each divided into swing quavers.Music for big band is highly 'arranged', with the music written down, leaving only specified gaps for jazz soloists.

    Key Songs/Artists
  Take The 'A' Train (Duke Ellington), Swing To The Big Band (Count Basie).
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
BEBOP:   Origins
 

A form of small group jazz that developed in the early and mid-1940s as a reaction against the commercialism of big band and swing music. Also, after the IIWW it was difficult to sustain the cost of large big bands, so smaller bebop jazz groups quickly developed. Hard bop later developed from bebop combined with blues and gospel music.

    Musical Characteristics
   

Fast, exciting tempos and improvisation based on chords rather than melody. The improvisation is often very technically demanding. The chords are often discordant. There are usually very complex polyrhythms, which means lots of rhythms playing at the same time. Many bebop tunes were based on chord progressions (also called chord changes) from popular songs, which allowed recording artists to avoid paying copyright fees. The chord changes to the song "I Got Rhythm" by George Gershwin were so often used that they are often referred to simply as "Rhythm changes."

    Key Artists/Songs
    Be-Bop (Dizzy Gillespie), Four In One (Thelonious Monk).
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
AVANT GARDE JAZZ:   Origins
    Grew out of free jazz that was common in the 1960s. Typically played by small groups of musicians. Many people consider fit to be loud, aggressive anddissonant. It remains less commercially popular than most other forms of jazz.
    Musical Characteristics
    Unaccompanied playing is an important feature. Whilst playing or improvising, the performers often break free of a regular pulse and set chord sequences. This can make the music sound chaotic and experimental to new listeners.
    Key Artists/Songs
   

Other Worlds (Sun Ra)

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COOL JAZZ:   Origins
    Emerged around 1949.A type of jazz that is understated and subtle and often encompasses West coast jazz or West coast cool, which originated primarily from California.  
    Musical Charactersitics
    Removed from the jarring elements of bebop (the discords and complex rhythms). It often has a mellow, laid back beat. Unusual time signatures - like 5/4, as in 'Take Five' - are sometimes used. Unjazz-like instruments used, like the flute and the vibraphone. Small groups, often trios or quartets.
    Key Artists/Songs
    Take Five (Dave Brubeck), The Days of Wine and Roses (George Shearing).
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VOCAL JAZZ:   Origins
    This simply means jazz from any period where a vocalist takes the lead rather than an instrumentalist. Scat singing is a common jazz singing style where the vocalist improvises a melody to nonsense syllables, often in a very fast, virtuosic style. Some of the great jazz singers are: Ella Fitzgerald, Billie Holiday, Sarah Vaughan, Frank Sinatra, Stacey Kent.
    Great Songwriters
   

Jazz singers still to this day continue the tradition of singing songs written by some of the greatest - usually American - popular songwriters of the early 20th century. Many jazz musicians mentioned above also perform instrumental versions of music by these songwriters such as: George Gershwin, Cole Porter, Irving Berlin, Johnny Mercer

    Key Artists/Songs:
    Anything Goes (Tony Bennett), How High The Moon (Ella Fitzgerald)
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Quaver gif Click here to play the AS Music Technology guide to Jazz album
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Essential Reading:  document icon2 The AS Music Technology Guide to Jazz
  document icon2 AS Student Guide page 32-33

 


NEW AGE - back to the top

Quick Summary:   Sometimes referred to as 'crossover' or even 'space music', is a vaguely defined style generally quite melodic and often instrumental. New Age music has evolved through a mix of electronic, ambient, classical, minimal, and celtic folk-influenced styles. Ambient music pioneers like Brian Eno and Popol Vuh have had a big influence. The minimalism of Terry Riley and Steve Reich is also noteable. Popular themes include space and the cosmos, environment and nature, wellness in being, harmony with one's self and the world, dreams or dreaming and journeys of the mind or spirit.
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Key Artists:  

Vangelis, Brian Eno, Enya, Tangerine Dream, Enigma

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Key Songs: Quaver gif Click here to play the AS Music Technology New Age album

Pulstar (Vangelis), A Stream With Bright Fish (Brian Eno), The Celts (Enya), Sungate (Tangerine Dream), Songs Of The Seas (Vangelis), Ocean Motion (Takedake/ John Kaizan Neptune), Traces (Enigma)

  ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Key Terms:
  Electronic and instrumental, frequently relying on sustained pads or long sequencer-based runs, long songs, up to 20 minutes and more, vocal arrangements and usage of acoustic instruments is less common, recordings of naturally occurring sounds are sometimes used as an introduction to a track or throughout the piece.
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Essential Reading:  document icon2 The AS Music Technology Guide to New Age Music
  document icon2 AS Student Guide page 29

 


PROG ROCK - back to the top

Quick Summary:   Started in 60s, peaked in 70s, a 'grandiose' style of 'Rock Music' , and an attempt to put rock music on a higher 'intellectual plane' as an art form. The precedent was set by The Beatles and Sergeant Pepper, with developments in recording technology (i.e. an increase in the number of tracks that could be laid down and mixed independently) helped prog rockers to pursue their extravagant tastes.
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Key Artists:   Yes, Genesis, Pink Floyd, Supertramp
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Key Songs: Quaver gif Click here to listen to the AS Music Technology Guide to Rock
Quaver gif The Return Of The Giant Hogweed (Genesis), Set The Controls For The Heart Of The Sun (Pink Floyd), Logical Song (Supertramp).
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Key Terms:   Long compositions, intricate melodies and harmonies, inpenetrable narratives (themes of science fiction, fantasy, religion, madness, etc.), concept albums or 'Rock Operas' (e.g. The Who's Tommy), use of unusual electronic instruments, unusual time signatures and scales, extended solos for many instruments, use of classical music forms and pieces, use of sound effects.
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Essential Reading: document icon2

The AS Music Technology Guide to Rock

document icon2 Pop Music Text Book pages 49-50
  document icon2 AS Student Guide page 29

Further Resources:

 

 

 

 

SOS logo SOS Classic Tracks - recording Supertramp's Logical Song
 

PSYCHADELIC ROCK - back to the top

Quick Summary:   Inspired by mind-altering experiences brought on by drugs such as LSD. A bridge from early blues-based rock to latter progressive rock and heavy metal, drawing heavily from non-Western sources such as Indian music. Marked the emergence of the "studio as instrument" trend. Sergeant Pepper is a classic example of this and late 60s Psychadelia in general as 'concept album' form. 'Psychadelic' musicians and bands often went on to create progressive rock in the 1970s, which maintained the love of unusual sounds and extended solos but added jazz and classical influences to the mix.
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Key Artists:   The Beatles, The Doors, Iron Butterfly, Pink Floyd, Traffic, Jimi Hendrix
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Key Songs: Quaver gif Click here to listen to the AS Music Technology Guide to Rock

Strawberry Fields (The Beatles), See Emily Play (Pink Floyd), Hole In My Shoe (Traffic), All Along The Watchtower (Jimi Hendrix), Riders On The Storm (The Doors), In A-Gadda-Da-Vidda (Iron Butterfly).

  ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Key Terms:   60s Psychadelia: modal melodies; esoteric lyrics describing dreams, visions, or hallucinations; longer songs and lengthy instrumental solos. Elaborate production, often using (what were then) the latest multitrack tape recorders. Heavy reliance on "trippy" electronic effects:distortion, reverb, and reversed, delayed and/or phased sounds. Unusual beats, disrupting traditional 4/4 timing. Themes of childhood, nostalgia and longing for lost innocence. Hypnotic grooves helping you "get lost" within a song.
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Essential Reading: document icon2

The AS Music Technology Guide to Rock

document icon2 Pop Music Text Book pages 49-50
  document icon2 AS Student Guide page 29

Further Resources:

 

BBC Logo

Sampledelica: The History Of The Mellotron (BBC Radio 4 Documentary)

SOS logo SOS Classic Tracks - recording Jimi Hendrix's All Along The Watchtower


PUNK ROCK - back to the top

Quick Summary:   Anti-establishment music movement that began about 1975. Hard-driving rock 'n' roll, with harsh lyrics attacking conventional society and popular culture, often expressing alienation and anger. A reaction against progressive rock and a lack of social realism in most pop music of the decade. Punk Rock intended to shock visually and lyrically. Influences were the abrasive, dissonant style of The Velvet Underground; the rebellious attitude and free spirit of The Doors; the snotty attitude and aggressive instrumentation of The Who and the early Rolling Stones.
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Key Artists:    The Sex Pistols, The Buzzcocks, The Clash
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Quaver gif Click here to listen to the AS Music Technology Guide to Rock
Key Songs: London's Burning (The Clash), Holidays In The Sun (The Sex Pistols)* , Fast Cars (The Buzzocks)
   
   *   For an analysis of 'Holidays In The Sun' refer to page 147 in the Pop Music Text Book
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Key Terms:   Simple musical structure and short songs (verse/chorus only, often no bridge) with fast tempos. Instrumentation ususally drum kit, one or two electric guitars electric bass, and vocals. Typical guitar sound uses a mixture of distortion, a 'buzz saw' sound, feedback and rhythmic power chords. Bass lines often just strings of 8th notes. Confrontational lyrics, 'sneering' delivery. Issues of unemployment, boredom, disparaging of governments and monarchies.
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Essential Reading: document icon2 The AS Music Technology Guide to Rock
  document icon2 Pop Music Text Book pages 57-58
  document icon2 AS Student Guide pages 29-30
Further Resources:  
 SOS logo SOS Classic Tracks - recording The Sex Pistols' Anarchy In The UK
     


RAP - back to the top

Quick Summary:   Part of the general 'hip-hop' movement that developed amongst US Black urban culture in the late 60s. General culture of 'hip-hop' includes DJ-ing, graffiti art (tagging), breakdancing, MC-ing and 'rap'. Rap started in the Bronx area of new York, during 'block parties', where early DJs began isolating percussion breaks to hit songs. Rap is made up of two main components: rapping (MC'ing) and DJing (audio mixing and scratching), influenced by the Jamaican 'toasting' tradition. Influence of soul music is also crucial. By 1979, 'hip hop' had become a commercially recorded music genre, and began to enter the American mainstream. By the beginning of the 2000s, rap was a staple of pop music charts.
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Key Artists:   Old Skool Rap/The 'Golden Age': The Sugarhill Gang, Grandmaster Flash, Run DMC
    Rock and Metal meets Rap: Aerosmith & Run-DMS, Public Enemy & Anthrax
    White' Rap: The Beastie Boys
    Gangsta' Rap: Ice-T
    1990s - onwards:  A Tribe Called Quest, The Fugees, Missy Elliott, Puff Daddy
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Key Songs:  Quaver gif Old Skool' Rap/The 'Golden Age: Rapper's Delight (The Sugarhill Gang), Wheels Of Steel, The Message (Grandmaster Flash), Peter Piper (Run-DMC)
   Quaver gif Rock and Metal meets Rap: Walk This Way (Run-DMC & Aerosmith), Bring Tha Noize (The Beastie Boys & Antrax)*
   Quaver gif White' Rap: Fight For Your Right To Party (The Beastie Boys)
   Quaver gif Gangsta' Rap: 6 'N The Mornin' (Ice-T)
   Quaver gif 1990s - onwards: Clap Your Hands (A Tribe Called Quest), Killing Me Softly (The Fugees), Get Ur freak on (Missy Elliot), I'll Be MIssing You (Puff Daddy) 
   *  For an analysis of 'Bring Tha Noize' refer to page 149 in the 'Pop Music Text Book'
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Key Terms:   Usually one or more rappers needed for 'dialogue', intensely rhythmic lyrical form, heavy use of alliteration and rhyme. Big emphasis mphasis on rhythm or 'beat', often performed by a DJ, a record producer, or one or more instrumentalists. Heavy use of sampling, often percussion breaks of existing songs (usually funk, rock, or soul). Samples usually augmented with drum machines, bass synths, lots of other processing. 'Scratching' is  an important element - sometimes 'live' often sampled in modern production.
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Essential Reading: document icon2 The AS Music Technology Guide to Rap/Hip-Hop
  document icon2 Pop Music Text Book pages 75-78, 98
  document icon2 AS Student Guide page 30
Further Resources:  
  Internet Icon Also, try browsing the following websites:
   

BBC Music - Urban
The Culture Of Urban Ghettos


REGGAE - back to the top

Quick Summary:   Often called the first 'world music', it originated in Jamaica in the 70s. Reggae's precursorts were Ska and Rocksteady, Ska having developed throughout the 60s. Blues and R&B are very important influences, both musically and socially. The fusion of traditional calypso Jamaican folk music ('mento') with R&B forms (made available through radio sets) gave birth to Ska, which in turn led to Rocksteady and Reggae styles. Reggae is often associated with the Rastafari movement, which influenced many prominent reggae musicians in the 1970s and 1980s. Subject matter of many reggae songs deals with many subjects other than Rastafarianism though, also embracing love songs, sexual themes and broad social commentaries. 'Dub' techniques - basically, remixing reggae tracks without the vocal lines - developed in the mid to late 70s.
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Key Artists: Ska: The Skatalites, Lauren Aitken
  Rocksteady: Alton Ellis, Marcia Griffiths, Dandy Livingstone, Derrick Morgan
  Reggae: Toots & The Maytals, Desmond Dekker, Jimmy Cliff, Bob Marley & The Wailers, Johnny Clarke, The Mighty Diamonds, Delroy Washington 
  'Lover's Rock': Delroy Wilson
  Dub: Augustus Pablo, Jah Shaka, Linton Kwesi Johnson
  Ska Revival/Two Tone: The Specials, Madness
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Key Songs: Quaver gif Click here to play the AS Music Technology Guide to Reggae
Ska: Guns Of Navarone (The Skatalites), Boogie In My Bones (Lauren Aitken)
  Rocksteady: Rock Steady (Alton Ellis), Feel Like Jumping (Marcia Griffiths), Rudy A Message To You (Dandy Livingstone), Tougher Than Tough (Derrick Morgan)
  Reggae: Do The Reggay (Toots & The Maytals), Israelites (Desmond Dekker), Wonderful World, Beautiful People (Jimmy Cliff), I Shot The Sheriff (Bob Marley & The Wailers), Let Go Violence (Johnny Clarke), Africa (The Mighty Diamonds), Freedom Fighters (Delroy Washington)
  Dub: King Tubby Meets The Rockers (Augustus Pablo), Snare Drum Dub (Jah Shaka), Sonny's Lettah (Linton Kwesi Johnson)
  Ska Revival/Two-Tone: A Message To You Rudy, Too Much To Young (The Specials), Baggy Trousers (Madness)
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Key Terms:   Ska: Combination of traditional calypso and New Orleans R&B and blues styles. Fast, syncopated rhythm guitar strokes, driving horns and boogie-style stand-up bass, with off-beat accents. Original Ska featured Jamaican instrumentalists, many of them fine jazz players, hence improvisatory feel of original (and later) ska.
  Rocksteady: More relaxed tempo than ska,  much steadier, straighter 4/4 time compared to the bouncy 12/8 swung time of ska. Less use of horns, and a change of the role of the bass: more broken-up and syncopated, using aggressive, repetitive lines, compared to the 'walking bass' 8th note patterns of ska. The bass also becomes the lead instrument, often high in the mix
    Reggae: Rhythm style characterized by regular guitar chops on the back beat (back beat often called 'the drop'). Kick drum often hits the third beat of each bar. Bass guitar takes on a prominent role, playing repeated patterns or riffs for much of the song. Reggae beats are slower than ska and rocksteady. Lyrical themes often include poverty and resistance to the oppression of government. Timed delay effects for rhytmic interest and long reverb settings are used extensively.
    Dub: Tracks are typically drenched in sound processing effects such as delay, echo, reverb, and filters, often accompanied by snatches of the lyrics from the original version. Much emphasis of the drums and bass (for 'Sound Systems') Lead instruments and vocals drop in and out of the mix. Some use of processed sound effects and other noises, such as animal sounds, babies crying, etc.
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Essential Reading: document icon2 The AS Music Technology Guide To Reggae
  document icon2 Pop Music Text Book pages 54-57 
  document icon2 AS Student Guide page 30
Further Resources:  
 SOS logo SOS Classic Tracks Article - recording Bob Marley & The Wailer's I Shot The Sheriff
  Internet Icon Also, try browsing the following websites: 
   

BBC Music - Blues Soul Reggae
Reggae.com

   


ROCK 'N' ROLL - back to the top

Quick Summary:   Emerged southern USA in 50s. The 'Rock n Roll Years' stretched from 1955-1959. Grew out of blues, boogie woogie, rhythm and blues, country music and gospel. Elements of rock and roll can be heard in rhythm and blues records as far back as 1920s. In 1951, Cleveland, Ohio disc jockey Alan Freed began playing this type of music for his white audience, ('Moondog's Rock and Roll Party'): he credited with coining the phrase "rock and roll" to describe the music he brought to the airwaves. Influence of white South American country music was crucial as was interaction between white and black cultures in the south (Many of Elvis' early Sun recordings have a 'folk like' sound). The R&B influence can be heard in, arguably the first ever hit Rock and Roll song, Rock Around The Clock by Bill Haley and the Comets in 1954.
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Key Artists:   Bill Haley & The Comets, Elvis Presley, Carl Perkins, Buddy Holly, Little Richard, Jerry Lee Lewis, Bo Diddley, Chuck Berry , Cliff Richard, Lonnie Donegan 
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
Key Songs: Quaver gif Click here to play the AS Music Technology Guide to Rock & Roll Album
 

Early Rock 'n' Roll/Rockabilly: Rock Around The Clock* (Bill Haley & The Comets), That's Alright, Mystery Train (Elvis Presley), Blue Suede Shoes (Carl Perkins), Maybe Baby**, Move On (Buddy Holly)

    Classic Rock 'n' Roll: Heartbreak Hotel, Blue Suede Shoes (Elvis Presley), Lucille (Little Richard), Whole Lotta Shakin' (Jerry Lee Lewis) 
    Influential: Mumblin' Guitar (Bo Diddley), Everyday (Buddy Holly), Roll Over Beethoven, Maybelline (Chuck Berry)
    British Rock 'n' Roll: Move It (Cliff Richard), Rock Island Line (Lonnie Donegan)
   *

For an analysis of 'Rock Around The Clock' refer to page 137 in the 'Pop Music text Book'

   **

For an analysis of 'Maybe Baby' refer to page 140 in the 'Pop Music Text Book'

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Key Terms:   Simple line-up of guitars, bass (originally upright bass), drums, piano and vocals. Bass lines often in 'walking' style, with slapped 'percussive' sound. Sometimes BV group creating a call and response effect. Songs usually in 4/4 with shuffle rhythm and powerful back beat (on the rim of the snare). Simple harmony: often only 3 chords in a 12-bar or 16-bar blues pattern, sometimes a chromatic turnaround finishing the song. Songs usually in 4/4 with shuffle rhythm and powerful back beat (on the rim of the snare) Fast tempos, danceable, with catchy hooks. Lyrics often about rebellion, teenage love, using code words for sex.
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
Essential Reading: document icon2 AS Music Technology Guide to Rock 'n' Roll
  document icon2 Pop Music Text Book chapter 3, and pages 136-137
  document icon2 AS Student Guide page 30
Further Resources:  
BBC Logo Hey Bo Diddley! - Part 1 (BBC Radio 2 Documentary)
BBC Logo Hey Bo Diddley! - Part 2 (BBC Radio 2 Documentary)
 SOS logo SOS Article - Sam Phillips: The Man Who Invented Rock & Roll
SOS logo

SOS Classic Tracks - Recording Cliff Richard's Move It


SOUL - back to the top

Quick Summary:   Materialised in the 60s, its origins being popular 50s Black music (gospel, jazz, Rhythm & Blues). Motown, the record label, founded in 1959, had a 'factory-line' approach to song production, and claimed use only Black musicians. The Motown studios were some of the first to employ limiting and equalisation. Stax Records (the 'Stax' sound) became important in the producion of Southern American soul music, using a mix of both balck and white musicians and production staff, bringing to public attention some of the first racially integrated pop groups. Atlantic records became Stax's rival, having started as a Jazz label in the 40s, but turning to the production of soul music in the 50s. Philly Soul (from 'Philadelphia') was a 70s style derived from the Motown and Stax sounds. A much more studio oriented sound, using large scale production techniques, it paved the way for Disco.
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Key Artists:   1950s R&B and Gospel Influences: The Drifters, Ray Charles.
  Motown: The Contours, Martha & the Vandellas, Diana Ross & the Supremes, The Four Tops, Marvin Gaye, Smokey Robinson, Stevie Wonder
    Stax/Atlantic: Wilson Pickett, Booker T & the MGs, Otis Redding, Sam & Dave, Aretha Franklin
    Philly Soul: The O'Jays, The Spinners, Harold Mervin & the Blue Notes, The Three Degrees
  'Blue Eyed' Soul/Soul Influenced: Lisa Stansfield, Teena Marie
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
Key Songs: Quaver gif Click here to play the AS Music Technology Guide to Soul album.
    1950s R&B and Gospel Influences: Money Honey, There Goes My Baby (The Drifters), I've Got A Woman, What'd I Say (Ray Charles).
 

Motown: First I Look At The Purse (The Contours), Dancing In The Street, Nowhere To Run  (Martha & the Vandellas), You Can't Hurry Love (Diana Ross & the Supremes), Reach Out I'll Be There (The Four Tops), What's Going On (Marvin Gaye), The Tracks Of My Tears (Smokey Robinson), Superstition (Stevie Wonder)

    Stax/Atlantic: Everybody Needs Somebody (Wilson Pickett), Hip-Hug Her  (Booker T & the MGs), My Girl  (Otis Redding), Soul Man* (Sam & Dave), Respect  (Aretha Franklin)
    Philly Soul: Love Train (The O'Jays), Ghetto Child  (The Spinners), Wake Up Everybody (Harold Mervin & the Blue Notes), The Sound Of Philadelphia (The Three Degrees)
    'Blue Eyed' Soul/Soul Influenced: All Around The World (Lisa Stansfield), I'm A Sucker For Your Love (Teena Marie)
   *

For an analysis of 'Soul Man' refer to page 137 in the 'Pop Music text Book'

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Key Terms:   General: 'Pop-Orientated' R&B, with rhythm section (sometimes organ in addition to or instead of piano), guitar and horns. Emphasis on horn section helped to distinguish soul from rock music. Elements from Rhythm & Blues and Gospel: use of 12-bar forms; call & response patterns; incessant repetition of notes, phrases, verses; use of blue notes; tight integration of instruments.
    Motown: Holland, Holland and Dozier songs - dense textures, large orchestrations with string and horn sections, frequent use of tambourines and hand claps to cut through the dense textures.
    Stax: Very different from Motown - earthier, bluesy feel; pulsating, gritty soul music propelled by a powerful horn section and driving rhythm section. Smaller ensembles than Motown with less dense arrangements. Vocals often very expressive, heavily influenced by Gospel.
    Philly Soul: A 70s style and sound - considered a 'producer's genre' because of the use of mostly session/studio musicians and lush, extravagand instrumental arrangements featuring sweeping strings and big horns. A much smoother sound compared to the funky, gritty style of Stax and Motown. 
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
Essential Reading: document icon2 AS Music Technology Guide to Soul
  document icon2 Pop Music Text Book chapter 4, pages 38-39 & chapter 11 pages 138 - 139
  document icon2 AS Student Guide page 31